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Our research program investigates the role of wild birds in the maintenance, transmission, and spread of pathogens, particularly zoonotic pathogens. Some of the pathogens we work with are: West Nile virus, eastern equine encephalitis virus, avian influenza virus, avian paramyxovirus -1, Plasmodium relictum (protozoan causing avian malaria), and Anaplasma phagocytophilum (tick-borne bacteria). In addition, we aim to understand how energetic demands and stress during the migratory period influence a bird's immune system. For more information please check our Research and People pages.